Babies, Children & Teens

Spanking Can Affect Physical Health Later in Life

Experts say corporal punishment may not be as harmless as once thought

A light tap. A spank on the tush. A smack of the hand. A firm grab. Different forms and different degrees of physical punishment are commonplace across many American households.
However, experts now say those disciplinary tactics may not be as harmless as once thought.
New research suggests—despite earlier conversations about its effects on mental health—that physical punishment also affects physical health later on in life.
Other studies have shown a link between traumatic events, such as child abuse, and subsequent health problems, but the data out this week takes a look at this particular parenting practice.
“If we construe physical punishment as traumatic to a child, it is certainly plausible that physical punishment could lead to both mental and physical health problems,” says Jacqueline Smith, M.D., child and adolescent psychiatrist at University of North Carolina Hospitals.
The report looked at physical punishment that was considered harsh (pushing, grabbing, slapping, hitting) but not severe enough to be considered child abuse. It found that those exposed to harsh physical punishment had higher rates of obesity and arthritis in adulthood, and a slight connection with heart disease.
Is Spanking Cultural?
Despite the fact that more than 30 countries have banned corporal punishment, the United States has not, and the practice spans socioeconomic statuses, race and ethnicity.
But, of all groups, African-American families—the same group that suffers more from obesity and heart disease—have been shown to utilize physical punishment more often than other families. However, there is no clear data that says that physical punishment is the reason for these complicated disparities.
“Some see corporal punishment as the legacy of African Americans’ violent past as slaves in this country,” says Dr. Smith. “Some African-American parents feel that because this disciplinary strategy seemingly worked for them, it will work for their own children.”
For others, the practice is viewed as prescribed by religion, Dr. Smith continues, as in Proverbs 13:24: “Whoever spares the rod hates their children, but the one who loves their children is careful to discipline them.”
“Other African-American parents feel that the academic, social and legal consequences for their children’s bad behavior are so high, that they must ensure obedience and good behavior by any means, including physical punishment,” says Smith.
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